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          1.概述 Summary

          信息來源:國家海洋局 作者: 發布時間:2011-05-31
          2003年,我省海洋環境保護工作在省委、省政府領導下,在國家海洋局指導下,各級海洋環境監測單位利用多種技術手段在我省管轄的海域開展了全方位動態監測。主要內容包括水環境、海洋沉積物和海洋生物質量的全海域環境趨勢性監測,同時加強了海水浴場、海洋保護區、海水增養殖區等功能區監測;首次在平潭和云霄海域設置了貝類監控區;開展了圍填海、海砂開采、互花米草、陸源排污口統計監測;并在閩江、九龍江、廈門杏林工業排污口、寧德蕉城市政排污口鄰近海域開展污染物入??偭勘O測;在全省近岸海域開展赤潮監視監測,對三都灣、閩江口、廈門近岸海域赤潮監控區實施高頻率、高密度的定時定點連續監測。

          In 2003, under the leadership of Fujian Provincial Committee of the Communist Party of China and Fujian Provincial People’s Government as well as the instructions of State Oceanic Administration, oceanic monitoring units of all levels carried out omnidirectional and dynamic monitoring in the sea areas in charge of Fujian Province, by using various technical means. The main contents include: water environment, marine sediment and the trend monitoring of marine life quality; at the same time, to consolidate the monitoring of the functional zones, such as seashore bathing places, oceanic reserves, marine aquafarms; to set up the seashell monitoring and controlling zones in the sea areas of both Pingtan and Yunxiao at the first time; to carry out the statistical monitoring of polder, exploiting sea sand, Spartin aallerni flora, terrestrial sewages, etc., to carry out monitoring of the total quantity of pollutants into the offshore marine areas in the Min River, the Jiulong River as well as the municipal sewages of Xinlin industry in Xiamen and Jiaocheng in Ningde; to carry out the red tide monitoring in the offshore marine areas of Fujian Province; to implement time-lapse, pointing and continuous red tide monitoring of high frequency and high intensity in the Sandu Gulf, the Min River Estuary and offshore marine areas of Xiamen.

          監測結果表明:

          ▲ 大部分海域海水水質基本良好,符合清潔、較清潔海水水質標準,遠海、近海海水水質優于近岸;與2002年相比河口、港灣等近岸海域污染范圍有所擴大,主要污染物是石油類、無機氮、活性磷酸鹽和汞等。

          海洋沉積物環境質量總體狀況良好,符合《海洋沉積物質量》標準,個別港灣有機碳、銅、鎘含量超一類標準。

          部分港灣海洋生物(貝類)體內的部分污染物含量仍然較高,超過一類和二類《海洋生物質量》標準的污染物有:鎘、砷、鉛、DDT、石油烴和糞大腸菌群。

          閩江口和九龍江口污染物排放量較去年有所增加,鄰近海域水環境污染仍然嚴重,主要污染物是化學需氧物質、無機氮、石油類和重金屬等。

          2003年共發生赤潮29起,其中13起造成水產養殖業直接經濟損失4248萬元;風暴潮災害2次,損失7.95億元;海浪災害5起,死亡(含失蹤)7人,直接經濟損失53萬元。

          2003年互花米草和大米草繼續蔓延。僅閩東海域侵占灘涂面積已達1.07萬公頃,而且每年以5%的速度擴展。

          2003年圍填海15處,面積1954公頃;海砂開采點1000余處,年開采量2030萬噸。對海洋環境造成一定影響。

          The results show that:

          Most of the sea water quality was good on the whole, reaching the standard of Grade “Clean” or “Less Clean”. The open and offing sea waters quality is better than that of the offshore sea waters. Compared with the year of 2002, the polluted ranges of offshore marine areas, such as the estuaries and loughs expanded to some extent in 2003, with the main pollutants including: petroleum, inorganic nitrogen, activated phosphate, hydrargyrum and so on.

          The overall environmental quality of marine sediment was good and reaching the standard of < Quality Standard for Marine Sediment >, though with the concentrations of organic carbon, Cu and Cd in some loughs exceeding the standard of GradeⅠ.

          The concentrations in the marine lives (seashells) are still relatively high in parts of the loughs. The pollutants exceeding the standard of GradeⅠor Ⅱ of < Quality Standard forMarine Life > include: Cd, As,Pb, DDT petrolic hydrocarbon and fecal coliform bacteria.

          The quantity of discharged pollutants was somewhat larger than that of last year. The environmental pollution of offshore marine areas was still serious with the main pollutants such as COD, inorganic nitrogen, petroleum, heavy metal and so on.

          There were totally 29 cases of red tides in 2003, 13 of which caused direct economic loss of 42.48 million RMB to aquiculture. There were two storm tides with a loss of 0.795 billion and five ocean wave disasters which caused disappearance of 7 people as well as direct economic loss of 530,000 RMB.

          Spartin aallerni flora and Common Cordgrass (Spartina anglica CE Hubb) continued to overspread in 2003. Just in the marine areas of eastern Fujian province, they invaded and occupied an area of 10,700 hektares in the tidal-flat of Mindong sea areas, with a spreading speed of 5% annually.

          15 locations of marine areas were enclosed and filled in for farmland (polder) in 2003, reaching up to an area of 1954 hektares. More than 1000 spots were employed for sea sand with an output of 20,300,000 tons every year. Both of them had some bad effects on the marine environment.

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